dt + dt

Time interval addition.

dt - dt

Time interval and date/time subtraction.

dt = dt, dt < dt, …

Comparison operators.

to_str()

Render a date/time value to a string.

to_datetime()

Create a datetime value.

cal::to_local_datetime()

Create a cal::local_datetime value.

cal::to_local_date()

Create a cal::local_date value.

cal::to_local_time()

Create a cal::local_time value.

to_duration()

Create a duration value.

cal::to_relative_duration()

Create a cal::relative_duration value.

datetime_get()

Extract a specific element of input datetime by name.

cal::time_get()

Extract a specific element of input time by name.

cal::date_get()

Extract a specific element of input date by name.

datetime_truncate()

Truncate the input datetime to a particular precision.

duration_truncate()

Truncate the input duration to a particular precision.

datetime_current()

Return the current server date and time.

datetime_of_transaction()

Return the date and time of the start of the current transaction.

datetime_of_statement()

Return the date and time of the start of the current statement.

operator
dt + dt
datetime + duration -> datetimecal::local_datetime + duration -> cal::local_datetimecal::local_date + duration -> cal::local_datecal::local_time + duration -> cal::local_timeduration + duration -> durationdatetime + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::local_dateiime + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::local_date + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::local_time + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationduration + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::relative_duration + cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_duration

Time interval addition.

This operator is commutative.

Copy
db> 
SELECT <cal::local_time>'22:00' + <duration>'1 hour';
{<cal::local_time>'23:00:00'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT <duration>'1 hour' + <cal::local_time>'22:00';
{<cal::local_time>'23:00:00'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT <duration>'1 hour' + <duration>'2 hours';
{10800s}
operator
dt - dt
duration - duration -> durationdatetime - datetime -> durationcal::local_datetime - cal::local_datetime -> durationlocal_time - local_time -> durationlocal_date - local_date -> durationdatetime - duration -> datetimecal::local_datetime - duration -> cal::local_datetimelocal_time - duration -> local_timelocal_date - duration -> local_dateduration - cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::relative_duration - duration -> cal::relative_durationcal::relative_duration - cal::relative_duration -> cal::relative_durationdatetime - cal::relative_duration -> datetimecal::local_datetime - cal::relative_duration -> cal::local_datetimelocal_time - cal::relative_duration -> local_timelocal_date - cal::relative_duration -> local_date

Time interval and date/time subtraction.

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT <datetime>'2019-01-01T01:02:03+00' -
  <duration>'24 hours';
{<datetime>'2018-12-31T01:02:03Z'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT <datetime>'2019-01-01T01:02:03+00' -
  <datetime>'2019-02-01T01:02:03+00';
{-2678400s}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT <duration>'1 hour' -
  <duration>'2 hours';
{-3600s}

It is an error to subtract a date/time object from a time interval:

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT <duration>'1 day' -
  <datetime>'2019-01-01T01:02:03+00';
QueryError: operator '-' cannot be applied to operands ...

It is also an error to subtract timezone-aware std::datetime to or from cal::local_datetime:

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT <datetime>'2019-01-01T01:02:03+00' -
  <cal::local_datetime>'2019-02-01T01:02:03';
QueryError: operator '-' cannot be applied to operands ...
function
datetime_current()
std::datetime_current() -> datetime

Return the current server date and time.

Copy
db> 
SELECT datetime_current();
{<datetime>'2018-05-14T20:07:11.755827Z'}
function
datetime_of_transaction()
std::datetime_of_transaction() -> datetime

Return the date and time of the start of the current transaction.

function
datetime_of_statement()
std::datetime_of_statement() -> datetime

Return the date and time of the start of the current statement.

function
datetime_get()
std::datetime_get(dt: datetime, el: str) -> float64std::datetime_get(dt: cal::local_datetime, el: str) -> float64

Extract a specific element of input datetime by name.

The datetime scalar has the following elements available for extraction:

  • 'epochseconds' - the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC (Unix epoch) for datetime or local time for cal::local_datetime. It can be negative.

  • 'century' - the century according to the Gregorian calendar

  • 'day' - the day of the month (1-31)

  • 'decade' - the decade (year divided by 10 and rounded down)

  • 'dow' - the day of the week from Sunday (0) to Saturday (6)

  • 'doy' - the day of the year (1-366)

  • 'hour' - the hour (0-23)

  • 'isodow' - the ISO day of the week from Monday (1) to Sunday (7)

  • 'isoyear' - the ISO 8601 week-numbering year that the date falls in. See the 'week' element for more details.

  • 'microseconds' - the seconds including fractional value expressed as microseconds

  • 'millennium' - the millennium. The third millennium started on Jan 1, 2001.

  • 'milliseconds' - the seconds including fractional value expressed as milliseconds

  • 'minutes' - the minutes (0-59)

  • 'month' - the month of the year (1-12)

  • 'quarter' - the quarter of the year (1-4)

  • 'seconds' - the seconds, including fractional value from 0 up to and not including 60

  • 'week' - the number of the ISO 8601 week-numbering week of the year. ISO weeks are defined to start on Mondays and the first week of a year must contain Jan 4 of that year.

  • 'year' - the year

Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT datetime_get(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00',
    'epochseconds');
{1525705282.306916}
Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT datetime_get(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00',
    'year');
{2018}
Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT datetime_get(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00',
    'quarter');
{2}
Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT datetime_get(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00',
    'doy');
{127}
Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT datetime_get(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00',
    'hour');
{15}
function
cal::time_get()
cal::time_get(dt: cal::local_time, el: str) -> float64

Extract a specific element of input time by name.

The cal::local_time scalar has the following elements available for extraction:

  • 'midnightseconds'

  • 'hour'

  • 'microseconds'

  • 'milliseconds'

  • 'minutes'

  • 'seconds'

For full description of what these elements extract see datetime_get().

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::time_get(
    <cal::local_time>'15:01:22.306916', 'minutes');
{1}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::time_get(
    <cal::local_time>'15:01:22.306916', 'milliseconds');
{22306.916}
function
cal::date_get()
cal::date_get(dt: local_date, el: str) -> float64

Extract a specific element of input date by name.

The cal::local_date scalar has the following elements available for extraction:

  • 'century' - the century according to the Gregorian calendar

  • 'day' - the day of the month (1-31)

  • 'decade' - the decade (year divided by 10 and rounded down)

  • 'dow' - the day of the week from Sunday (0) to Saturday (6)

  • 'doy' - the day of the year (1-366)

  • 'isodow' - the ISO day of the week from Monday (1) to Sunday (7)

  • 'isoyear' - the ISO 8601 week-numbering year that the date falls in. See the 'week' element for more details.

  • 'millennium' - the millennium. The third millennium started on Jan 1, 2001.

  • 'month' - the month of the year (1-12)

  • 'quarter' - the quarter of the year (1-4) not including 60

  • 'week' - the number of the ISO 8601 week-numbering week of the year. ISO weeks are defined to start on Mondays and the first week of a year must contain Jan 4 of that year.

  • 'year' - the year

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::date_get(
    <cal::local_date>'2018-05-07', 'century');
{21}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::date_get(
    <cal::local_date>'2018-05-07', 'year');
{2018}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::date_get(
    <cal::local_date>'2018-05-07', 'month');
{5}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::date_get(
    <cal::local_date>'2018-05-07', 'doy');
{127}
function
datetime_truncate()
std::datetime_truncate(dt: datetime, unit: str) -> datetime

Truncate the input datetime to a particular precision.

The valid unit values in order or decreasing precision are:

  • 'microseconds'

  • 'milliseconds'

  • 'seconds'

  • 'minutes'

  • 'hours'

  • 'days'

  • 'weeks'

  • 'months'

  • 'quarters'

  • 'years'

  • 'decades'

  • 'centuries'

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT datetime_truncate(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00', 'years');
{<datetime>'2018-01-01T00:00:00Z'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT datetime_truncate(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00', 'quarters');
{<datetime>'2018-04-01T00:00:00Z'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT datetime_truncate(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00', 'days');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T00:00:00Z'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT datetime_truncate(
    <datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00', 'hours');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T15:00:00Z'}
function
duration_truncate()
std::duration_truncate(dt: duration, unit: str) -> duration

Truncate the input duration to a particular precision.

The valid unit values are: - 'microseconds' - 'milliseconds' - 'seconds' - 'minutes' - 'hours'

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT duration_truncate(
    <duration>'15:01:22', 'hours');
{54000s}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT duration_truncate(
    <duration>'15:01:22.306916', 'minutes');
{54060s}
function
to_datetime()
std::to_datetime(s: str, fmt: OPTIONAL str={}) -> datetimestd::to_datetime(local: cal::local_datetime, zone: str) -> datetimestd::to_datetime(year: int64, month: int64, day: int64, hour: int64, min: int64, sec: float64, timezone: str) -> datetimestd::to_datetime(epochseconds: decimal) -> datetimestd::to_datetime(epochseconds: float64) -> datetimestd::to_datetime(epochseconds: int64) -> datetime

Create a datetime value.

The datetime value can be parsed from the input str s. By default, the input is expected to conform to ISO 8601 format. However, the optional argument fmt can be used to override the input format to other forms.

Copy
db> 
SELECT to_datetime('2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916+00');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916Z'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT to_datetime('2018-05-07T15:01:22+00');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22Z'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT to_datetime('May 7th, 2018 15:01:22 +00',
                   'Mon DDth, YYYY HH24:MI:SS TZH');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22Z'}

Alternatively, the datetime value can be constructed from a cal::local_datetime value:

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT to_datetime(
  <cal::local_datetime>'2019-01-01T01:02:03', 'HKT');
{<datetime>'2018-12-31T17:02:03Z'}

Another way to construct a the datetime value is to specify it in terms of its component parts: year, month, day, hour, min, sec, and timezone

Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT to_datetime(
    2018, 5, 7, 15, 1, 22.306916, 'UTC');
{<datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916000Z'}

Finally, it is also possible to convert a Unix timestamp to a datetime

Copy
db> 
SELECT to_datetime(1590595184.584);
{<datetime>'2020-05-27T15:59:44.584000000Z'}
function
cal::to_local_datetime()
cal::to_local_datetime(s: str, fmt: OPTIONAL str={}) -> local_datetimecal::to_local_datetime(dt: datetime, zone: str) -> local_datetimecal::to_local_datetime(year: int64, month: int64, day: int64, hour: int64, min: int64, sec: float64) -> local_datetime

Create a cal::local_datetime value.

Similar to to_datetime(), the cal::local_datetime value can be parsed from the input str s with an optional fmt argument or it can be given in terms of its component parts: year, month, day, hour, min, sec.

For more details on formatting see here.

Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_datetime('2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916');
{<cal::local_datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::to_local_datetime('May 7th, 2018 15:01:22',
                         'Mon DDth, YYYY HH24:MI:SS');
{<cal::local_datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22'}
Copy
db> 
... 
SELECT cal::to_local_datetime(
    2018, 5, 7, 15, 1, 22.306916);
{<cal::local_datetime>'2018-05-07T15:01:22.306916'}

A timezone-aware datetime type can be converted to local datetime in the specified timezone:

Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT cal::to_local_datetime(
  <datetime>'2018-12-31T22:00:00+08',
  'US/Central');
{<cal::local_datetime>'2018-12-31T08:00:00'}
function
cal::to_local_date()
cal::to_local_date(s: str, fmt: OPTIONAL str={}) -> local_datecal::to_local_date(dt: datetime, zone: str) -> local_datecal::to_local_date(year: int64, month: int64, day: int64) -> local_date

Create a cal::local_date value.

Similar to to_datetime(), the cal::local_date value can be parsed from the input str s with an optional fmt argument or it can be given in terms of its component parts: year, month, day.

For more details on formatting see here.

Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_date('2018-05-07');
{<cal::local_date>'2018-05-07'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_date('May 7th, 2018', 'Mon DDth, YYYY');
{<cal::local_date>'2018-05-07'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_date(2018, 5, 7);
{<cal::local_date>'2018-05-07'}

A timezone-aware datetime type can be converted to local date in the specified timezone:

Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT cal::to_local_date(
  <datetime>'2018-12-31T22:00:00+08',
  'US/Central');
{<cal::local_date>'2019-01-01'}
function
cal::to_local_time()
cal::to_local_time(s: str, fmt: OPTIONAL str={}) -> local_timecal::to_local_time(dt: datetime, zone: str) -> local_timecal::to_local_time(hour: int64, min: int64, sec: float64) -> local_time

Create a cal::local_time value.

Similar to to_datetime(), the cal::local_time value can be parsed from the input str s with an optional fmt argument or it can be given in terms of its component parts: hour, min, sec.

For more details on formatting see here.

Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_time('15:01:22.306916');
{<cal::local_time>'15:01:22.306916'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_time('03:01:22pm', 'HH:MI:SSam');
{<cal::local_time>'15:01:22'}
Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_local_time(15, 1, 22.306916);
{<cal::local_time>'15:01:22.306916'}

A timezone-aware datetime type can be converted to local date in the specified timezone:

Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT cal::to_local_time(
  <datetime>'2018-12-31T22:00:00+08',
  'US/Pacific');
{<cal::local_time>'06:00:00'}
function
to_duration()
std::to_duration( NAMED ONLY hours: int64=0, NAMED ONLY minutes: int64=0, NAMED ONLY seconds: float64=0, NAMED ONLY microseconds: int64=0 ) -> duration

Create a duration value.

This function uses NAMED ONLY arguments to create a duration value. The available duration fields are: hours, minutes, seconds, microseconds.

Copy
db> 
... 
... 
SELECT to_duration(hours := 1,
                   minutes := 20,
                   seconds := 45);
{4845s}
Copy
db> 
SELECT to_duration(seconds := 4845);
{4845s}
function
std::duration_to_seconds()
std::duration_to_seconds(cur: duration) -> decimal

Return duration as total number of seconds in interval.

Copy
db> 
SELECT duration_to_seconds(<duration>'1 hour');
{3600.000000n}
Copy
db> 
SELECT duration_to_seconds(<duration>'10 second 123 ms');
{10.123000n}
function
cal::to_relative_duration()
cal::to_relative_duration( NAMED ONLY years: int64=0, NAMED ONLY months: int64=0, NAMED ONLY days: int64=0, NAMED ONLY hours: int64=0, NAMED ONLY minutes: int64=0, NAMED ONLY seconds: float64=0, NAMED ONLY microseconds: int64=0 ) -> cal::relative_duration

Create a cal::relative_duration value.

This function uses NAMED ONLY arguments to create a cal::relative_duration value. The available duration fields are: years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, microseconds.

Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_relative_duration(years := 5, minutes := 1);
{P5YT1S}
Copy
db> 
SELECT cal::to_relative_duration(months := 3, days := 27);
{P3M27D}
Light
Dark
System