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Schema

This page is intended as a rapid-fire overview of EdgeDB’s schema definition language (SDL) so you can hit the ground running with EdgeDB. Refer to the linked pages for more in-depth documentation!

EdgeDB implements a rigorous type system containing the following primitive types.

Strings

str

Booleans

bool

Numbers

int16 int32 int64 float32 float64 bigint decimal

UUID

uuid

JSON

json

Dates and times

datetime cal::local_datetime cal::local_date cal::local_time

Durations

duration cal::relative_duration cal::date_duration

Binary data

bytes

Auto-incrementing counters

sequence

Enums

enum<x, y, z>

These primitives can be combined into arrays, tuples, and ranges.

Arrays

array<str>

Tuples (unnamed)

tuple<str, int64, bool>

Tuples (named)

tuple<name: str, age: int64, is_awesome: bool>

Ranges

range<float64>

Collectively, primitive and collection types comprise EdgeDB’s scalar type system.

Object types are analogous to tables in SQL. They can contain properties, which can correspond to any scalar types, and links, which can correspond to any object types.

Declare a property by naming it and setting its type.

Copy
type Movie {
  title: str;
}

The property keyword can be omitted for non-computed properties since EdgeDB v3.

See Schema > Object types.

Properties are optional by default. Use the required keyword to make them required.

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type Movie {
  required title: str;       # required
  release_year: int64;       # optional
}

See Schema > Properties.

Add a pair of curly braces after the property to define additional information, including constraints.

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type Movie {
  required title: str {
    constraint exclusive;
    constraint min_len_value(8);
    constraint regexp(r'^[A-Za-z0-9 ]+$');
  }
}

See Schema > Constraints.

Object types can contain computed properties that correspond to EdgeQL expressions. This expression is dynamically computed whenever the property is queried.

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type Movie {
  required title: str;
  uppercase_title := str_upper(.title);
}

See Schema > Computeds.

Constraints can also be defined at the object level.

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type BlogPost {
  title: str;
  author: User;

  constraint exclusive on ((.title, .author));
}

Constraints can contain exceptions; these are called partial constraints.

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type BlogPost {
  title: str;
  published: bool;

  constraint exclusive on (.title) except (not .published);
}

Use index on to define indexes on an object type.

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type Movie {
  required title: str;
  required release_year: int64;

  index on (.title);                        # simple index
  index on ((.title, .release_year));       # composite index
  index on (str_trim(str_lower(.title)));   # computed index
}

The id property, all links, and all properties with exclusive constraints are automatically indexed.

See Schema > Indexes.

Object types can be declared as abstract. Non-abstract types can extend abstract types.

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abstract type Content {
  required title: str;
}

type Movie extending Content {
  required release_year: int64;
}

type TVShow extending Content {
  required num_seasons: int64;
}

Multiple inheritance is supported.

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abstract type HasTitle {
  required title: str;
}

abstract type HasReleaseYear {
  required release_year: int64;
}

type Movie extending HasTitle, HasReleaseYear {
  sequel_to: Movie;
}

See Schema > Object types > Inheritance.

Links can correspond to abstract types. These are known as polymorphic links.

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abstract type Content {
  required title: str;
}

type Movie extending Content {
  required release_year: int64;
}

type TVShow extending Content {
  required num_seasons: int64;
}

type Franchise {
  required name: str;
  multi entries: Content;
}

See Schema > Links > Polymorphism and EdgeQL > Select > Polymorphic queries.

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