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System

Insert

The insert command is used to create instances of object types. The code samples on this page assume the following schema:

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module default {
  abstract type Person {
    required property name -> str { constraint exclusive };
  }

  type Hero extending Person {
    property secret_identity -> str;
    multi link villains := .<nemesis[is Villain];
  }

  type Villain extending Person {
    link nemesis -> Hero;
  }

  type Movie {
    required property title -> str { constraint exclusive };
    required property release_year -> int64;
    multi link characters -> Person;
  }
}

You can insert instances of any non-abstract object type.

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db> 
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insert Hero {
  name := "Spider-Man",
  secret_identity := "Peter Parker"
};
{default::Hero {id: b0fbe9de-3e90-11ec-8c12-ffa2d5f0176a}}

Similar to selecting fields in select, insert statements include a shape specified with curly braces; the values of properties/links are assigned with the := operator.

Optional links or properties can be omitted entirely, as well as those with an default value (like id).

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db> 
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insert Hero {
  name := "Spider-Man"
  # secret_identity is omitted
};
{default::Hero {id: b0fbe9de-3e90-11ec-8c12-ffa2d5f0176a}}

You can only insert instances of concrete (non-abstract) object types.

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db> 
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insert Person {
  name := "The Man With No Name"
};
error: QueryError: cannot insert into abstract object type 'default::Person'

Just as we used subqueries to populate links with existing objects, we can also execute nested inserts.

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db> 
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insert Villain {
  name := "The Mandarin",
  nemesis := (insert Hero {
    name := "Shang-Chi",
    secret_identity := "Shaun"
  })
};
{default::Villain {id: d47888a0-3e7b-11ec-af13-fb68c8777851}}

Now lets write a nested insert for a multi link.

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db> 
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insert Movie {
  title := "Black Widow",
  characters := {
    (select Hero filter .name = "Black Widow"),
    (insert Hero { name := "Yelena Belova"}),
    (insert Villain {
      name := "Dreykov",
      nemesis := (select Hero filter .name = "Black Widow")
    })
  }
};
{default::Movie {id: af706c7c-3e98-11ec-abb3-4bbf3f18a61a}}

We are using set literal syntax to construct a set literal containing several select and insert subqueries. This set contains a mix of Hero and Villain objects; since these are both subtypes of Person (the expected type of Movie.characters), this is valid.

You also can’t assign to a computed property or link; these fields don’t actually exist in the database.

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db> 
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insert Hero {
  name := "Ant-Man",
  villains := (select Villain)
};
error: QueryError: modification of computed link 'villains' of object type
'default::Hero' is prohibited

In the previous query, we selected Black Widow twice: once in the characters set and again as the nemesis of Dreykov. In circumstances like this, you should pull that subquery into a with block.

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db> 
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with black_widow := (select Hero filter .name = "Black Widow")
insert Movie {
  title := "Black Widow",
  characters := {
    black_widow,
    (insert Hero { name := "Yelena Belova"}),
    (insert Villain {
      name := "Dreykov",
      nemesis := black_widow
    })
  }
};
{default::Movie {id: af706c7c-3e98-11ec-abb3-4bbf3f18a61a}}

The with block can contain an arbitrary number of clauses; later clauses can reference earlier ones.

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db> 
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with
 black_widow := (select Hero filter .name = "Black Widow"),
 yelena := (insert Hero { name := "Yelena Belova"}),
 dreykov := (insert Villain {name := "Dreykov", nemesis := black_widow})
insert Movie {
  title := "Black Widow",
  characters := { black_widow, yelena, dreykov }
};
{default::Movie {id: af706c7c-3e98-11ec-abb3-4bbf3f18a61a}}

EdgeDB provides a general-purpose mechanism for gracefully handling possible exclusivity constraint violations. Consider a scenario where we are trying to insert Eternals (the Movie), but we can’t remember if it already exists in the database.

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db> 
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insert Movie {
  title := "Eternals"
}
unless conflict on .title
else (select Movie);
{default::Movie {id: af706c7c-3e98-11ec-abb3-4bbf3f18a61a}}

This query attempts to insert Eternals. If it already exists in the database, it will violate the uniqueness constraint on Movie.title, causing a conflict on the title field. The else clause is then executed and returned instead. In essence, unless conflict lets us “catch” exclusivity conflicts and provide a fallback expression.

Note that the else clause is simply select Movie. There’s no need to apply additional filters on Movie; in the context of the else clause, Movie is bound to the conflicting object.

There are no limitations on what the else clause can contain; it can be any EdgeQL expression, including an update statement. This lets you express upsert logic in a single EdgeQL query.

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db> 
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with
  title := "Eternals",
  release_year := 2021
insert Movie {
  title := title,
  release_year := release_year
}
unless conflict on .title
else (
  update Movie set { release_year := release_year }
);
{default::Movie {id: f1bf5ac0-3e9d-11ec-b78d-c7dfb363362c}}

When a conflict occurs during the initial insert, the statement falls back to the update statement in the else clause. This updates the release_year of the conflicting object.

The else clause is optional; when omitted, the insert statement will return an empty set if a conflict occurs. This is a common way to prevent insert queries from failing on constraint violations.

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db> 
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insert Hero { name := "The Wasp" } # initial insert
unless conflict;
{default::Hero {id: 35b97a92-3e9b-11ec-8e39-6b9695d671ba}}
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db> 
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insert Hero { name := "The Wasp" } # The Wasp now exists
unless conflict;
{}

Bulk inserts are performed by passing in a large JSON as a query parameter, unpacking it, and using a for loop to insert the objects.

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db> 
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with
  raw_data := <json>$data,
for item in json_array_unpack(raw_data) union (
  insert Hero { name := <str>item['name'] }
);
Parameter <json>$data: [{"name":"Sersi"},{"name":"Ikaris"},{"name":"Thena"}]
{
  default::Hero {id: 35b97a92-3e9b-11ec-8e39-6b9695d671ba},
  default::Hero {id: 35b97a92-3e9b-11ec-8e39-6b9695d671ba},
  default::Hero {id: 35b97a92-3e9b-11ec-8e39-6b9695d671ba},
  ...
}
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